Pre-Workout And Pre-Game Nutrition

August 18, 2020 | Nutrition

Dev Mishra, M.D.

President, Sideline Sports Doc

Medical Director, Apeiron Life

Clinical Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University

August 18, 2020

Key Points:

  • If you find yourself hungry during training or competition you’ll likely benefit from a pregame snack or small meal
  • If you’re an elite endurance athlete or triathlete your pre-training and in-competition nutrition strategy is critical
  • Most athletes engaged in normal training or competition of an hour or so may have no benefit from a pre-workout snack
  • Each person responds differently to nutrition strategies, experiment with some changes during training and see how they affect you

In today’s post I want to visit some thoughts on pregame and pretraining food. This means a small meal, snack, or other food product. I’ve covered pregame hydration in another post. We’ve also given some ideas on after workout food separately.

As it is with so many aspects of nutrition, there’s quite a bit of controversy around pregame nutrition. I’m indebted to my colleagues at Apeiron Life, Jae Berman and Heather Rivera who are the two smartest sport and performance dietitians I’ve ever come across.

Jae and Heather take a very practical approach and recommend that all athletes ask themselves a few questions before coming up with an approach to pregame nutrition. And whenever possible use real whole food options over packaged products or bars to achieve your nutrition goals.

Here are the questions:

  1. Are you actually hungry before training?A simple question that too few of us ask.
  2. What’s your gut telling you? Some people get nausea just thinking about competing.
  3. What are your goals?If you’re a high performance athlete there’s likely a benefit from carefuly planned pretraining nutrition. But if you’re training for weight loss, muscle bulk, or general health/longevity there may be negligible benefit from an overly detailed pretraining nutrition regimen.

Having a snack before a workout is touted as beneficial by many health professionals, supplement companies and media outlets alike.  While there is some truth in the science of this, in reality, not everyone benefits from or needs this level of nuance in a nutrition plan.

Let’s have a look at the questions and how the answers might influence your decision.

  1. First, are you actually hungry before training? It’s a surprisingly simple question, but if you’re doing a normal training or competition of an hour or so, and you’re not hungry then you likely don’t need anything. Ms. Berman and Ms. Rivera say you should “never be so hungry you make poor decisions (… a snack an hour or two ahead is a good idea), and never so full that you are pushing the healthy limits of your digestive and metabolic systems.”
  2. Next, what’s your gut telling you? In my career as a team physician I’ve seen a surprising number of elite athletes who have nausea or vomit before competition. If you’re one of those who get really nervous you definitely don’t want to challenge your gut with pregame food. Listen to your body. If on the other hand you find yourself with hunger pangs during training, experiment with pretraining snacks.
  3. Finally, what are your competition goals?  If you’re an endurance athlete or triathlete then your pretraining and in-training nutrition strategy is critical. Here’s what Ms. Berman and Ms. Rivera have to say about other goals: “If you’re wanting to lose weight, you’re eating adequate and balanced meals, and you don’t feel hungry immediately before or after your workout, skip the snacks.  They’ll add excess calories and impede your goal.  Same goes for lean goals, general health and longevity.”

Summing it all up, here are some specific recommendations:

If your last meal was more than 2 hours ago


If your last meal was less than 2 hours ago AND you feel physical hunger

Consider these snack examples:

  • ½ cup berries + 1 cup plain, Greek Yogurt
  • 1 piece fruit + 1 cup cottage cheese
  • 1 slice whole grain bread/1 brown rice cake + 1 Tbsp unsweetened nut butter
  • ½ cup berries + handful of plain nuts
  • ½ whole grain bagel + 1 Tbsp nut butter
  • Apple + 2 Tbsp nut butter
  • ½ cup dates + 7 almonds

Finally… do your experiments in training and not on the day of competition

 Some helpful resources:









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